Research techniques and paper writing

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Results — What did you find? Discussion — What does it mean? Abstract — Summarize the entire study The abstract for the report comes at the beginning of the paper, but you should write it after you have drafted the full report. Report Results section. Refer to your table or figure and state the main trend Table 3 shows that Spam Filter A correctly filtered more junk emails than Filter B 2.

Support the trend with data Filter A correctly filtered The average difference is If needed Note any additional, secondary trends and support them with data In addition Figure 1 also shows If needed Note any exceptions to your main trends or unexpected outcomes. Comment Discussion section. If needed Provide an explanation A feasible explanation is This trend can be explained by In contrast, Y found If needed Evaluate whether the findings support or contradict a hypothesis 4.

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Additional facts can be listed on the back of the handout. Remind students that if they copy directly from a text they need to put the copied material in quotation marks and note the page number of the source. Note: Students may need more research time following this session to find additional information relevant to their research question.

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  7. Explain that interesting facts that are not relevant for the literature review section can be listed in the section labeled Hook. Facts listed in the Hook section can be valuable for introducing the research paper. Use the Example Research Paper Scaffold to illustrate how to fill in the first and last lines of the Literature Review entry, which represent topic and concluding sentences. These should be filled in only after all the relevant facts from the source have been listed, to ensure that students are basing their research on facts that are found in the data, rather than making the facts fit a preconceived idea.

    Then have students complete the other four sections of the Literature Review Section in the same manner.

    Explain that in this session students will compare the information they have gathered from various sources to identify themes. Explain the process of analysis using the Example Research Paper Scaffold. Show how making a numbered list of possible themes, drawn from the different perspectives proposed in the literature, can be useful for analysis. In the Example Research Paper Scaffold, there are four possible explanations given for the effects of color on mood.

    Remind students that they can refer to the Example Student Research Paper for a model of how the analysis will be used in the final research paper.

    Writing a Scientific Research Report (IMRaD) | Guides

    Have students identify common themes and possible answers to their own research question by reviewing the topic and concluding sentences in their literature review. Students may identify only one main idea in each source, or they may find several. Instruct students to list the ideas and summarize their similarities and differences in the space provided for Analysis on the scaffold.

    Return the Research Paper Scaffolds to students with comments and corrections.

    Writing the methods/METHODOLOGY sections in a research proposal

    Note: In the finished research paper, the analysis section will be about one paragraph. During this session, students formulate one or more possible answers to the research question based upon their analysis for possible testing. Invite students to consider and briefly discuss the following questions: How can you tell whether the ideas you are reading are true?

    If there are two or more solutions to a problem, which one is the best? Researchers verify the validity of their findings by devising original research to test them, but what kind of test works best in a given situation? Explain the difference between qualitative and quantitative research. Quantitative methods involve the collection of numeric data, while qualitative methods focus primarily on the collection of observable data.

    Quantitative studies have large numbers of participants and produce a large collection of data such as results from people taking a question survey. Qualitative methods involve more detailed interviews and artifact collection. Show how the research question in the Example Research Paper Scaffold goes beyond what is reported in a literature review and adds new information to what is already known.

    The test must be safe, both physically and mentally, for those involved. This means no unsupervised, dangerous experiments. Parental approval should be obtained see Permission Form. The number of subjects should be kept to multiples of 10, so it is easier to report the data statistically. If the research involves a survey An equal number of male and female participants should be included if possible. A wide range of ages should be included if possible. The survey should have no more than 10 questions. The survey form should include an introduction that states why the survey is being conducted and what the researcher plans to do with the data.

    Inform students of the schedule for submitting their research plans for approval and completing their original research.

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    Students need to conduct their tests and collect all data prior to Session 6. Normally it takes one day to complete research plans and one to two weeks to conduct the test. If students have conducted original research, instruct them to report the results from their experiments or surveys. Quantitative results can be reported on a chart, graph, or table. Qualitative studies may include data in the form of pictures, artifacts, notes, and interviews. Study results can be displayed in any kind of visual medium, such as a poster, PowerPoint presentation, or brochure.

    Also, you may be expected to follow a particular style guideline like the one published by the American Psychological Association while writing the Methods section. Biomedical researchers would benefit from using the checklists for different study types to ensure the essential details are included in the Methods. Structure the section so that it tells the story of your research : All the experiments should be presented in a logical manner that helps the reader retrace the gradual and development and nuances of the study.

    How to Write a Research Paper

    A useful way of achieving this is to describe the methods in a chronological order of the experiments. Follow the order of the results: To improve the readability and flow of your manuscript, match the order of specific methods to the order of the results that were achieved using those methods. Use subheadings: Dividing the Methods section in terms of the experiments helps the reader to follow the section better. You may write the specific objective of each experiment as a subheading.

    Alternatively, if applicable, the name of each experiment can also be used as subheading. Provide all details meticulously: Provide the details that you considered while designing the study or collecting the data because the smallest variations in these steps may affect the results and interpretation of their significance. When employing the outcome measures, the readers would like to know the information regarding validity and reliability. The correct way of reporting the reliability and the validity depends on the specific research design. Usually, information from existing literature is presented to support for the reliability and the validity of a measure.

    Carefully describe the materials, equipment like testing instruments and technical equipment , or stimuli used in the experiment. If your study involved a survey or any psychological assessment, mention the questionnaire, scoring methods, and validation of scales with every possible detail. Also, be careful about one common manuscript error i. Although the estimated sample size is computed before the actual study starts, it helps the reader assess the expected change in the outcome variables and the number of subjects needed to detect that change within a certain confidence range.

    Similarly, mentioning power calculation is a critical point to be mentioned in the Methods section. Specify the variables : Clearly mention not only the control variables, independent variables, dependent variables but also if there were any extraneous variables that might influence the result of your study.

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    You may also consult the biostatistician of your team to receive help to write this section. Finally, it is important to provide the justification of the preferred statistical method used in the study. For example, why the author is using a one-tailed or two-tailed analysis. Do not describe well-known methods in detail: For the sake of brevity, avoid listing the details of the experiments that are widely used or already published in numerous articles in your field of research.

    Instead, mention and cite the specific experiment and mention that the referred process was followed. However, if you have modified the standard process to meet the specific aim of your study, do describe the modifications and the reasons for those in sufficient detail. Do not provide unnecessary details: Avoid unnecessary details that are not relevant to the result of the experiment.

    For example, you need not mention trivial details such as the color of the bucket that held the ice. Try to stick only to the details that are relevant and have an impact on your study.

    Important Tips for a Good Methodology Section

    Do not discuss the pros and cons of other methods: While it may be tempting to discuss the reasons why you did not use a particular method or how your chosen method is superior to others, save these details for the Discussion section. Utilize the Methods section only to mention the details of the methods you chose.

    To summarize all the tips stated above, the Methods section of an ideal manuscript aims to share the scientific knowledge with transparency and also establishes the robustness of the study. I hope that this article helps you to reach the goal of writing a perfect manuscript! Suggested reading:.

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